Search results for “Chronic complications in diabetes animal models and chronic complications frontiers in animal diabetes research”

Diabetes: Chapter 14. Diabetic Nephropathy and TocotrienolDiabetic nephropathy is a serious complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies suggests that there is a close link between this condition and hyperglycemia and oxidative stress induced inflammatory cascade. Therefore investigations into antioxidant and anti-inflammatory strategies may offer new effective approaches in its treatment. This chapter is an account of the effect of one dietary polyphenolic antioxidant, tocotrienol, o…

Diabetes: Chapter 22. Antioxidant Supplements and Diabetic RetinopathyConventional treatments for diabetic retinopathy (DR) includes glycemic control, laser photocoagulation, vitrectomy, intravitreal triamcinolone, and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents. However these strategies have not proved capable of halting the progression of this disease in all cases. The mechanisms leading to DR are not fully understood, but there is a growing body of evidence showing that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of this diabetic co…

Diabetes: Chapter 19. Statins, Diabetic Oxidative Stress and Vascular TissueThis chapter summarizes the basic and clinical science supporting the role of oxidative stress pathways in linking hyperglycemia to diabetic vascular disease. In addition to exploring the etiology and consequences of various sources of oxidative stress in diabetes, this chapter will focus on hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coA reductase inhibitors (or ‘statins’) for their impact on oxidative stress in diabetes – especially in their effects independent of lowering plasma lipids. The interaction of s…

Diabetes: Chapter 5. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in DiabetesDiabetes is a multifactorial disease associated with serious comorbidities. This condition has been related to oxidative stress and, as a consequence, to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are known to be produced by different sources in diabetes. Excessive production of ROS can be harmful, making antioxidant defenses of vital importance. Dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin E or vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids have been used to modulate the oxidative stress created in…

Chronic Complications in Diabetes: Animal Models and Chronic Complications (Frontiers in Animal Diabetes Research)Individual volumes in the series Frontiers in Animal Diabetes Research provide basic researchers as well as clinical investigators with in-depth coverage of basic experimental diabetes research. Each volume will be topic oriented with timely and liberally referenced reviews. The series will provide a valuable reference source for basic researchers as well as clinical investigators, graduate students and research fellows in the areas of diabetology, endocrinology, physiology, and pharmacology. Ma…

Diabetes: Chapter 18. The Protective Role of Taurine in Cardiac Oxidative Stress under Diabetic ConditionsDiabetes mellitus (DM) is the outcome of an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin characterized by persistent hyperglycemia and disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. DM is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, predominantly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in the development and progression of diabetes and its associated complications in …

Diabetes: Chapter 24. Epidemiologic Evidence on Antioxidant-related Micronutrients and Diabetic RetinopathyRetinopathy is a serious microvascular complication of diabetes. These retinal vascular abnormalities are one of the leading causes of blindness in diabetes. Oxidative stress in the retina contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. Micronutrients, including vitamin A, vitamin C and carotenoids, possess antioxidant properties and may be used as an adjunct therapy to slow the development and the progression of retinopathy. This chapter reviews the epidemiologic findings relating these…

Diabetes: Chapter 4. Diabetic Retinopathy and Oxidative StressDiabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of acquired blindness in working age adults worldwide. Biochemical changes in DR contribute to both the microscopic structural and functional changes in the retina. All these alterations result in macroscopic retinal damage that can be assessed by funduscopy. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria is considered a causal link between elevated glucose and biochemical abnormalities in the pathophysiology of DR. Moreover…

Diabetes: Chapter 20. Resveratrol and Cerebral Arterioles during Type 1 DiabetesChronic hyperglycemia is associated with type 1 diabetes, and produces damage to many organ systems (including the brain), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and is a major economic burden throughout the world. Investigators have suggested that the damaging effects of diabetes on peripheral organs appear to be related to an increase in oxidative stress. Alterations in the reactivity of large and small arteries may contribute to the progression of organ damage observed in diabetics. The…